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How to choose kitchen utensils
According to the function of the pot, the pressure cooker, frying pan, wok, soup pot, steamer, milk pot, multi-function pot, etc.; according...
According to the function of the pot, the pressure cooker, frying pan, wok, soup pot, steamer, milk pot, multi-function pot, etc.; according to the material, stainless steel pot, iron pot, aluminum pot, casserole, copper pot, enamel pot, non-stick pot, Composite material pot, etc.; according to the number of handles, single ear pot and double ear pot; according to the shape of the bottom of the pot, the pan and the round bottom pot.
1, pressure cooker
The pressure cooker can be divided into aluminum alloy pressure cooker and stainless steel pressure cooker according to the material. According to the closing method, it can be divided into a screw type, a gland type and a falling cover type. The most common type on the market is the screw type.
Pressure cookers must be equipped with three safety devices in accordance with national standards GB13623-92 and GB15066-94: pressure limiting devices, safety pressure protection devices and opening and closing cover pressure protection devices.
The function of the pressure limiting device is that when the pressure in the pot reaches the working pressure during the heating process, the pressure limiting valve is exhausted through the venting hole to prevent the pressure from continuing to rise, and the purpose of cooking is achieved, and an anti-blocking cover is arranged under the pressure limiting valve. To prevent food from clogging the pressure limiting vent.
The safety pressure protection device is often a fusible piece. When the pressure exceeds the working pressure and the pressure limiting valve is not working due to clogging of the vent hole or other reasons, the fusible piece is vented through the exhaust when the pressure is not more than twice the working pressure. The pressure cooker is damaged, thus protecting the safety of the user. Nowadays, the safety pressure protection device of many pressure cookers has been changed to a spring structure, and when the pressure rises, the spring is exhausted, which also acts as a pressure relief.
The opening and closing cover pressure protection device is usually placed where the handle is combined with the lid. There are two functions. First, when the lid is not fully engaged, the pressure is not increased because the pot lid has a low fastening strength. If the pressure is raised by heating, the pressure cooker may be blasted. Second, when the pressure in the pot has not dropped to the safe pressure, it is guaranteed that the user will not be allowed to open the cover.
Pay attention to the following points when choosing a pressure cooker.
4 Pressure cookers with pressure limiting device, safety pressure protection device and opening and closing pressure protection device should be purchased. In particular, there are a large number of old-fashioned pressure cookers without opening and closing pressure protection devices on the market. These pressure cookers have been eliminated and are not in compliance with current national standards.
3 should be purchased as needed. The aluminum alloy pressure cooker has fast heat conduction and uniform heat; the stainless steel pressure cooker is beautiful, smooth and wear-resistant, but the heat conduction is slow, the heat is concentrated, and it is easy to paste the bottom. However, some stainless steel pressure cookers have increased the composite bottom and improved the performance.
2 should pay attention to the appearance quality of the pressure cooker. Some individual vendors produce pressure cookers with rough workmanship and burrs on the edges of the pots. It is recommended that consumers buy large manufacturers' products at large shopping malls. At the time of purchase, it is also necessary to pay attention to whether the product has a trademark, a factory name or a factory address. It is best to check whether the pressure cooker has an inspection report issued by the technical supervision department.
1 The pressure cooker will decrease its overall strength with the extension of the service life. According to the relevant national regulations, the maximum life of the pressure cooker is 8 years. All the pressure cookers used in the overdue period are unsafe pressure cookers and must be replaced.
2, iron pot
Iron pan is a commonly used cooker, mainly used in wok, its chemical properties are stable and it is not easy to cause chemical reaction. When cooking with a wok, stir fry and add less water to reduce the loss of vitamins. A small amount of iron dissolved in the cooking can be absorbed and utilized by the body, which is good for health. However, the iron pan is easy to rust, and it is not suitable to hold the food overnight. It is easy to oxidize and deteriorate with the iron pan.
Pay attention to the following points when choosing a wok.
1 pot surface strives to be smooth, but can not require "smooth as mirror", due to the casting process, the iron pot has irregular light lines, this is not a problem.
2 Check if there are any flaws. There are mainly two types of small bumps and small pits. The convex part of the small bumps is generally iron, which has little effect on the quality of the pot. If the protrusion is on the concave surface of the pot, it can be ground with a grinding wheel to avoid blocking the spatula. Small pits are more complicated and have a greater hazard to the quality of the bowl. There are three main situations, namely, trachoma, eye and eye. The "three-eye" prone site is at the center of both sides of the pot, which is the throat where the molten iron is poured. Pay attention to the purchase, because some people use graphite to fill the pits, which are not easily detected by ordinary people. They can only be brushed with a small brush to expose them.
3 pot bottom fire parts commonly known as pot butt. The big butt is not good because of its slow fire. It costs a lot of time and costs.
4 pots have thick points, thin as well. Some iron pans may be thick and thin on one side, which is caused by the misalignment of the model. This uneven thickness of the pan is not good. When buying, you can put the bottom of the pot toward the sky, use your fingers to press the center of the concave surface of the pot, and hit with a hard object. The louder the pot sounds, the better the vibration of the hand feels. This method can also be used to check the pot for cracks. Cracks are generally prone to occur on the side of the pot because they are the thinnest.
If there are rust spots on the 5 pot, it is not necessarily the quality is not good. The brightness and quality of the pot did not have much impact. Because the substance that makes the pot bright is graphite. The use of graphite on casting is to use it as a refractory coating. After the pot is cast, the graphite objectively has the effect of not rusting the pot. Pots with rust spots indicate long storage times. The longer the pot storage time, the better, because the internal tissue of the pot can be more stable, and it is not easy to crack when it is used.
6 cast iron pan (also called 铛) because it is used for "fried", "burning" does not require a big fire, so the bottom of the pot is thicker, the weight can be heavier.
3, aluminum pot
The aluminum pan is light, durable, fast to heat, uniform in heat conduction, and rust-free, but it is not suitable for cooking acidic or alkaline foods and salty foods. Otherwise, the aluminum in the cookware will dissolve a large amount of contaminated food. Numerous studies have shown that excessive intake of aluminum accelerates aging, and aluminum is the root cause of Alzheimer's disease.
It is understood that aluminum products mainly include fine aluminum (soft aluminum) products and cast aluminum (hard aluminum) products, the materials are aluminum and aluminum alloy. The surface color can be divided into white, light yellow and other colors. White aluminum products are divided into casting and stamping. The surface of the cast aluminum product is treated by car light and mechanical polishing, the surface is white, but the metal structure is loose, and there are certain casting defects. Stamped aluminum products, the surface is washed white, sanded and mechanically polished, the surface of which is a natural oxide film, the film thickness is only 0.01-0.15 μm, thin and uneven, it is easy to be mechanically scratched or worn. The yellow aluminum product is anodized by stamping the product to form a light yellow artificial oxide film on the surface. The oxide film is generally 5-20 μm thick, uniform and dense, and under a strong alkali action, the film is not destroyed in 100 seconds. Therefore, the light yellow aluminum product is the best, it has the characteristics of beautiful appearance, easy to remove dirt, strong corrosion resistance and strong wear resistance.
In daily life, many people like to use a steel ball to polish the bottom of the aluminum pan. Experts say that although the stain on the pan is wiped off, the protective film on the surface of the aluminum cookware is also wiped off. . Therefore, when using an aluminum cookware such as an aluminum pan or an aluminum pot, it is not necessary to wipe off the pale yellow rust of the surface layer.
When selecting an aluminum pan, you should pay attention to the straightness of the pot body. The bottom of the pot, the lid of the pot and the inside and outside are bright. There are no dark colors, black spots or cracks. At the same time, check the structure of the parts, such as whether the rivets, ring heads, etc. are firm and have no hemp. Point, trachoma.
4, stainless steel pot
The stainless steel pot has a beautiful appearance and exquisite structure. At the same time, it has the advantages of durability, corrosion resistance, rust prevention, easy processing and no deformation. It is the mainstream product in the cookware market. However, stainless steel pots have uneven heat conduction, so many brands of stainless steel pots use a three-layer composite bottom structure, and some brands also use a three-layer composite structure. The three-layer composite structure is generally a two-layer stainless steel sandwiched with a layer of aluminum. It is formed by a high-tech process at one time, so that the pan is heated evenly and has high heat conduction. It does not burn the food due to the single temperature in the pot, and it is not easy to produce soot. Generally have a variety of functions such as frying, frying, roasting, and stewing. The use of a three-layer composite pot can not only maintain the nutrients of the food, but also maximize the health of the housewife.
Stainless steel pots can not hold salt, soy sauce, vinegar, vegetable soup, etc. for a long time. Because these foods contain a lot of electrolytes, if they are in a long time, stainless steel will also react with these electrolytes like other metals. Toxic metal elements are dissolved.
It is not possible to use traditional Chinese medicine in stainless steel pots. Because traditional Chinese medicines contain various alkaloids, organic acids and other ingredients, especially under heating conditions, it is difficult to avoid chemical reactions with them, which may cause the drugs to fail and even produce some more toxic. Complex.
It is not possible to wash with a strong alkaline or strong oxidizing chemical such as soda, bleaching powder, sodium hypochlorite or the like. Because these materials are strong electrolytes, they also react electrochemically with stainless steel.
The key to the quality of the pot is at the bottom of the pot. The thickness of the aluminum layer of the three-layer composite bottom should be even. Some three-layer composite structure stainless steel pot aluminum layer thickness distribution is not uniform, such as thin sides, intermediate thickness, etc., resulting in uneven heat conduction at the bottom of the pot. The design of the lid structure should be reasonable and the sealing should be good. The micro-convex lid design allows the water to circulate naturally, and the sealing is good so that the heat is not easily lost. The handle should not be hot, because the easy-to-handle handle is prone to aging.
Choose stainless steel pots suitable for use in gas stoves, induction cookers, microwave ovens, etc.
5, non-stick pan
The non-stick pan is beautiful, novel, non-sticky, non-sticky, easy to clean, easy to wash, and tasteless. Common non-stick substrates are aluminum, iron, stainless steel and alloys. The non-stick layer has a coating, a cast film, and the like. Non-stick coating materials mainly have ordinary non-stick coating and high-grade silver non-stick coating. Good non-stick coating can make the cooking utensils cook without any oil or only a little oil. The cast film is mainly made of PTFE, which is the same material used for heart bypass surgery. Cast non-stick pan has the functions of frying, frying, stewing, roasting, etc. No cooking fumes are produced under normal cooking conditions, and no water can be added when stewing meat.
Non-stick pans are required to be used. Do not use a hard object such as a shovel or a steel shovel to scrape the pan. Do not use wire to clean the pan. Do not use a fire.
Go to the big shopping mall to choose the brand name non-stick pan. Relatively speaking, the material is thick and uniform non-stick pan, the food can be in a relatively constant temperature state, the nutrients are not lost, and the taste is pure.
Casserole is suitable for stewed meat, soup and fried Chinese medicine, but the casserole contains a small amount of lead in the enamel. It is easy to dissolve when cooking acidic food, which is harmful to health. Therefore, it is best to use the casserole with natural color inside. If the color of the inner wall of the casserole is not suitable for storing wine, vinegar and acidic drinks and food. The newly purchased casserole can be first boiled with 4% vinegar water to remove most of the harmful substances.
1 Look at the pot noodles. The surface of the pot is smooth, but it is not required to be smooth as a mirror. It is normal to have irregular light lines on the surface, but if the texture is too dense, it is a defective product.
2 check points. "Small bumps" can be ground with a grinding wheel. The quality of "small pits" is poor. Some sellers often use graphite to fill the "eyes", which is difficult to detect. Only a small brush can be used to expose them.
3 Check the bottom of the pot. The smaller the bottom of the pot, the faster the fire, saving fuel and saving time.
4 Check the thickness. The pot has a thin thickness, which is thin. For identification, the bottom of the pot can be turned to the sky. Use your fingers to press against the center of the concave surface, and hit with a hard object. The louder the sound of the pot, the better the finger vibration.
Second, the tool
There are many types of knives, such as chopper, knife, vegetable knife, planer knife, ham knife, tomato knife, watermelon knife, bread knife, multi-purpose knife, etc. according to function; steel knife and steel knife according to the blade; Carbon steel, stainless steel, high carbon stainless steel knives, etc. Many of the branded tools are now complete, and the general set of tools also includes sharpeners and tool holders.
1 chopper: used to cut bones.
2 knives: used for sliced food, but not for frozen meat.
3 vegetable knife: used to cut vegetables and fruits.
4 planing knife: used to plan the skin of vegetables and fruits.
5 ham knife: used to cut meat such as ham.
6 tomato knife: used to cut tomatoes and other juicy, juicy, soft fruits.
7 Watermelon Knife: It is used to cut melons with thicker peels and larger fruits.
8 bread knife: used to cut soft food with a hard skin.
9 multi-purpose knife: It is especially suitable for cutting fish fillets, etc., and has various uses.
Pay attention to the following points when selecting a tool.
1 The surface is smooth. Only the smooth surface of the tool can really play the role of rust resistance.
2 sharp edges. The blade should be sharp, straight and unnotched.
3 comfortable to use. The design of the shank should be humanized and comfortable to hold.
4 use safe. The handle should have a non-slip design and will not hurt the user.
Tableware generally includes ceramic tableware, plastic tableware, stainless steel tableware, enamel tableware, wooden tableware, and bamboo tableware. Among them, stainless steel tableware is mainly used for western tableware, enamel tableware, wooden tableware, bamboo tableware and plastic tableware. The stainless steel tableware is gradually welcomed by consumers, and ceramic tableware is the mainstream.
1, ceramic tableware
Ceramic tableware does not rust, does not decay, does not absorb water, the surface is hard and smooth, easy to wash, has the advantages that other tableware is difficult to compare, but the lead in ceramics is also a problem that cannot be avoided in the manufacturing process for thousands of years. Over the years, the relevant spot checks by the State Quality Supervision Department have also shown that excessive lead dissolution has become a common problem in ceramic tableware.
When purchasing ceramic tableware, you should pay attention to the choice of small or safe underglaze or glazed tableware. Do not choose dishes with very bright colors and colored decorations on the inside. For glazed porcelain, it is easy to use visual inspection and hand touch to identify. If the picture is not as bright as the glaze, the hand feel is not smooth, or the edge of the picture has a convex feeling, you should be careful to purchase it. In addition, consumers should not buy ceramics on the booth. Products, if economic conditions permit, you can also choose lead-free glaze green tableware. Before using the newly purchased ceramic tableware, it can be immersed in vinegar to melt most of the lead. When using it, do not use colored ceramic tableware to hold acidic food.
1, the hinge
In the frequent switching process of the cabinet door, the hinge is the most tested. It not only has to accurately connect the cabinet and the door panel, but also bears the weight of the door panel alone, and must also keep the appearance of the door neatly arranged and not deformed. Most of the hinges currently seen on the market are detachable. They are divided into two parts: the base and the buckle. When selecting the cabinet, the salesperson can be required to remove the door together with the hinge buckle to check the inside of the buckle.
At present, the hinge generally has two card positions and three card positions, which can basically satisfy the use. Of course, the hinge of the three-point card position is better.
The steel for making hinges is the most important. If it is not good, after a while, the door panel may be tilted back and forth, slipping off the shoulders. Most of the brand's cabinet hardware uses cold-rolled steel, which is perfect in thickness and toughness.
In addition, try to choose a multi-point positioning hinge. The so-called multi-point positioning means that the door panel can stay at any angle when it is opened. It will not be laborious to open, and will not be closed suddenly, thus ensuring the safety of use. This is especially important for the upper hanging cabinet door. The quality of the positioning is related to the toughness of the reed used in the hardware. The quality of the reed determines the opening angle of the door. The quality of the reed can make the opening angle exceed 90 degrees.
2, the rail
Inside the slide rail that is invisible to the naked eye, it is its bearing structure, which is directly related to its load-bearing capacity. There are both steel ball slides and silicon wheel slides on the market. The former automatically removes dust and dirt on the slide rails by rolling the steel balls, thereby ensuring that the slide rails are clean and does not affect the sliding function due to the dirt entering the interior. At the same time, the steel ball can spread the force to the surrounding area.
Method of maintaining kitchen utensils